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Objectives

After studying the material of this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Explain what is meant by a physical system and distinguish between an open system and a closed system.
2. State the first law of thermodynamics and use this law to solve problems.
3. Distinguish between an isothermal process, isobaric process, isochoric process and adiabatic process and draw a PV diagram for each process.
4. Calculate the work done by a gas from a PV diagram. Use the equations for an ideal gas and for the internal energy of a gas to calculate the change in internal energy of a gas and the heat added or removed during a thermodynamic process.
5. Calculate the amount of heat which must be added or removed to change the temperature of a gas held in a closed container under conditions of constant volume or constant pressure.
6. Write from memory and explain the meaning of three equivalent ways of stating the second law of thermodynamics.
7. Use the first and second laws of thermodynamics to solve problems involving a Carnot engine.
8. Distinguish between a reversible process and an irreversible process. Give examples of each type of process.
9. Determine the change in entropy for a system in which the thermodynamic process is either reversible or irreversible.
10. Distinguish between macrostate and microstate and solve problems involving the statistical interpretation of entropy.





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