After studying the material of this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Convert a temperature given in degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius and/or degrees Kelvin, and vice versa.
2. State the factors that cause the volume of a solid or liquid to change or the length of a solid to change. Also, solve word problems and determine the final length or volume.
3. Write the mathematical relationships that summarize Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, and the ideal gas equation. Use these equations to solve word problems.
4. State in your own words Avogadro's hypothesis. State from memory the modern value of Avogadro's number.
5. State the postulates of the kinetic theory of gases.
6. Rewrite the ideal gas equation in terms of motion of the molecules of an ideal gas.
7. Explain what is meant by the term rms velocity.
8. Explain what is meant by Van der Waal's forces.
9. Given a phase diagram for water, determine the range of temperature and pressure at which water is a solid, liquid, or gas. Describe what is meant by the triple point of water and point out the triple point on a phase diagram.
10. Explain what is meant by sublimation and use a phase diagram to determine the range of temperatures and pressures for which the sublimation of water could occur.
11. Explain why evaporation from a liquid is related to the temperature of the liquid and the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the liquid.
12. Explain what is meant by vapor pressure and explain why vapor pressure is related to the temperature of the liquid and the boiling point of the liquid.
13. Distinguish between relative humidity and absolute humidity and solve word problems related to relative humidity.
14. Explain what is meant by diffusion and why diffusion is slower through a liquid than through a gas.
15. Use Fick's law to solve word problems related to gaseous diffusion.
16. State Graham's law of diffusion and use this law to determine the mass of a molecule of an unknown gas.