Biological Science

Chapter 5: Cell Structure and Function

Conceptual Review

This is an on-line version of the same Conceptual Review questions included at the end of the chapter in your textbook. Use this version to quickly and easily submit your work to your instructor or teaching assistant.

1. Compare and contrast the structure of a generalized plant, animal, and prokaryotic cell. What is the function of each structure? Which features are common to all cells? Which are specific to certain lineages?  

To create paragraphs in your essay response, type <p> at the beginning of the paragraph, and </p> at the end.

2. Briefly explain the experimental strategy used by researchers to identify the signal that targets the nucleoplasmin protein to the nucleus.  

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3. Draw a diagram that traces the movement of a secreted protein from its site of synthesis to the outside of a eukaryotic cell. Identify all of the organelles that the protein passes through, and indicate the direction of movement.  

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4. Briefly describe the mechanisms that allow a eukaryotic cell to deliver different cellular products to different organelles or the cell membrane. Use diagrams where appropriate. Be sure to compare and contrast the molecular "addresses" used to direct proteins to the nucleus, ER, and lysosomes.  

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5. Describe how a motor protein like kinesin can move a transport vesicle down a microtubule track. Include all necessary steps and components.  

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6. Describe the logic of a pulse-chase experiment. How was this approach used to document the pattern of protein transport through the endomembrane system?  

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7. Briefly describe how researchers use differential centrifugation to isolate particular cell components for further study.  

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