|Home||Chapter 11: Intermolecular Forces, Liquids, and Solids|
Many of the substances that we will consider are molecular. In fact, virtually all substances that are liquids at room temperature are molecular substances. Covalent bonds, which are forces within molecules, influence molecular shape, bond energies, and many aspects of chemical behavior. The physical properties of molecular liquids and solids, however, are due largely to intermolecular forces, the forces that exist between molecules. We first encountered intermolecular forces in Section 10.9, where we saw that attractions between gas molecules lead to deviations from ideal-gas behavior. But how do these attractions arise? By understanding the nature and strength of intermolecular forces, we can begin to relate the composition and structure of molecules to their physical properties.
We begin our discussion by comparing gases, liquids, and solids on the molecular level. We will then consider the various kinds of intermolecular forces. Once we examine the molecular basis for these attractive forces, we will consider their effects on the physical properties of liquids and solids.