Case Study: Fat in the Family?
30.1 What Nutrients Do Animals Need?
- Cells Continuously Expend Energy, Which Is Derived from Nutrients and Measured in Calories
- Lipids Include Fats, Phospholipids, and Cholesterol
- Animals Store Energy as Fat
- Carbohydrates, Including Sugars and Starches, Are a Source of Quick Energy
- Proteins, Composed of Amino Acids, Perform a Wide Range of Functions Within the Body
- Minerals Are Elements Required by the Body
- Vitamins Are Required in Small Amounts and Play Many Roles in Metabolism
- Water-Soluble Vitamins
- Fat-Soluble Vitamins
- Nutritional Guidelines Help People Obtain a Balanced Diet
30.2 How Is Digestion Accomplished?
Health Watch: Eating DisordersBetrayal of the Body
- Digestion Within Single Cells Occurs in the Sponges
- A Sac with One Opening Forms the Simplest Digestive System
- Digestion in a Tube Allows Animals to Feed More Frequently
- Digestive Specializations
- Special Adaptations Allow Ruminants to Digest Cellulose
- Intestinal Length Is Correlated with Diet
- Teeth Evolved to Accommodate Different Diets
- Birds Have Gizzards for Grinding Food
30.3 How Do Humans Digest Food?
- The Mechanical and Chemical Breakdown of Food Begins in the Mouth
Health Watch: Ulcers: Digesting the Digestive Tract
- The Esophagus Conducts Food to the Stomach
- Most Digestion Occurs in the Small Intestine
- The Liver and Gallbladder Provide Bile, Important in Fat Breakdown
- The Pancreas Supplies Several Digestive Secretions to the Small Intestine
- The Digestive Process Is Completed by Cells of the Intestinal Wall
- Most Absorption Occurs in the Small Intestine
- Water Is Absorbed and Feces Are Formed in the Large Intestine
- Digestion Is Controlled by the Nervous System and Hormones
Case Study Revisited: Fat in the Family?
Links to Life: Are You Too Heavy?
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