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Chapter 7 Audio Glossary

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Chapter 2 Audio Glossary
Chapter 3 Audio Glossary
Chapter 4 Audio Glossary
Chapter 5 Audio Glossary
Chapter 6 Audio Glossary
Chapter 7 Audio Glossary
Chapter 8 Audio Glossary
Chapter 9 Audio Glossary
Chapter 10 Audio Glossary
Chapter 11 Audio Glossary
Chapter 12 Audio Glossary
Chapter 13 Audio Glossary
Chapter 14 Audio Glossary
Chapter 15 Audio Glossary
Chapter 16 Audio Glossary
Chapter 17 Audio Glossary
Chapter 18 Audio Glossary
Chapter 19 Audio Glossary
Chapter 20 Audio Glossary
Chapter 21 Audio Glossary

 

Chapter 7 Audio Glossary

Chapter 7: G-O Audio Glossary    Chapter 7: P-Z Audio Glossary

  abrasion  Sliding injury that mechanically removes the epidermal layer of the skin to reveal the dermis beneath. Also known as a brush burn.

  abscess  Localized, pus-containing pocket caused by a bacterial infection in a skin injury. The infection is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a common bacterium on the skin. A furuncle is a localized abscess around a hair follicle that causes the skin to be elevated, painful, and red. Also known as a boil. A carbuncle is composed of several large furuncles with connected, draining sinuses that channel through the subcutaneous tissue or to the skin surface. There are also areas of tissue necrosis. Tooth with a localized area of pain, swelling, redness, and a pus-producing infection and local areas of dead tissue. The infection can extend from the tooth into the jawbone. Treatment: Antibiotic drugs, root canal treatment, or tooth extraction.

  acne vulgaris  During puberty, the sebaceous glands are especially active and produce large amounts of sebum, particularly on the forehead, nose, chin, shoulders, and back. The excess sebum builds up around the hair shaft, hardens, and blocks the follicle. The blocked secretions elevate the skin and form a reddish papule. In other hair follicles, the oily sebum traps dirt and enlarges the pore. The sebum turns black as its oil is oxidized from exposure to the air. This forms a comedo (blackhead). As bacteria feed on the sebum, they release irritating substances that produce inflammation. Large numbers of bacteria produce an infection. The body sends white blood cells to this area, forming pustules (whiteheads). In severe cystic acne, the papules enlarge to form deep, pus-filled cysts. The clinical picture is a combination of papules, comedos, pustules, and, in some cases, cysts.

  actinic keratoses  Raised, irregular, rough areas of skin that are dry and feel like sandpaper. Develop in middle-aged persons in areas chronically exposed to the sun. They can develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Also known as solar keratoses.

  adipocere  A waxy substance that forms on adipose tissue if a body is buried in moist dirt.

  adipose  Large deposits of triglycerides; body fat.

  albinism  White to light pink skin coloration. Genetic mutation that causes nonfunctioning melanocytes that do not produce melanin. There is a lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and iris of the eyes.

  allergen  Foreign cells from plants or animals (foods, pollens, molds, animal dander), as well as dust, chemicals, and drugs that cause an allergic response when inhaled or injected (or injected into) hypersensitive people.

  allergy  Response to an allergen in certain hypersensitive people. Allergy symptoms are based on the release of histamine.

  allograft  Uses a skin graft taken from a cadaver. It is frozen and stored in a skin bank until needed. This is a temporary skin graft to protect the patient against infection and fluid loss. It is rejected by the patient’s body in about a week.

  alopecia  Acute or chronic loss of scalp hair.

  anaphylactic shock  Of or like anaphylaxis, a severe systemic allergic reaction characterized by bronchoconstriction, hypotension, and shock.

  anaphylaxis  Severe systemic allergic reaction characterized by bronchoconstriction, hypotension, and shock. Also known as anaphylactic shock.

  anesthesia  Condition in which sensation of any type, including touch, pressure, proprioception, or pain, has been completely lost.

  anhidrosis  Congenital absence of the sweat glands and inability to tolerate heat.

  antibiotic drug  A drug that treats bacterial infections.

  antifungal drug  Drug that treats ringworm (tinea). Also treats fungal infection of the nails.

  antipruritic drug  A drug that decreases itching.

  antiviral drug  A drug that treats viral infections.

  autograft  Uses a skin graft taken from another part of the patient’s body.

  basal layer  Of the deepest layer of the epidermis of the skin.

  benign  Not cancerous.

  biopsy  Surgical procedure to remove a small piece of tissue for examination to look for abnormal or cancerous cells.

  blepharoplasty  Plastic surgery procedure to the eyelids to remove fat and sagging skin. Often done in conjunction with a face-lift.

  blister  Repetitive rubbing injury that mechanically separates the epidermis from the dermis and releases tissue fluid. A blister is a fluid-filled sac with a thin, transparent covering of epidermis.

  Botox  Medical procedure in which Botox is injected into the muscles of the forehead that cause deep skin wrinkles between the eyebrows and into the muscles that cause wrinkles at the corners of the eyes.

  bulla  Small blisters formed by a second-degree burn as the epidermis detaches from the dermis and the space between them fills with tissue fluid.

  bullae  Plural form of bulla.

  callus  Repetitive rubbing injury that causes the epidermis to gradually thicken into a wide, elevated pad. A corn is a callus with a hard central area with a pointed tip that causes pain and inflammation of deeper skin tissues.

  cancer  General word for any type of cancerous cell or tumor. There are four broad categories of cancer: carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, and embryonal cell.

  carbuncle  An abscess composed of large furuncles with connecting channels through the subcutaneous tissue or to the skin surface.

  carcinoma  Cancer of epithelial cells in the skin and mucous membranes of organs. Carcinomas grow more slowly than sarcomas, but they occur more frequently. Carcinomas usually metastasize via the lymphatic system.

  cellulitis  Spreading inflammation and infection of the connective tissues of the skin and muscle. It develops from a superficial cut, scratch, insect bite, blister, or splinter that becomes infected. The infecting bacteria produce enzymes that break down cell membranes and allow the infection to spread between the tissue layers.

  chemotherapy  Chemotherapy drugs specifically target cancer cells. They may be given intravenously into a vein, or into an artery, or cavity, or implanted in a wafer.

  chloasma  Blotchy, darkened pigmentation of the skin of the face because of the action of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) from the anterior pituitary gland during pregnancy.

  cicatrix  Fibrous tissue composed of collagen that replaces injured skin tissue as the injury heals. Also known as a scar. A keloid is a very firm, abnormally large scar that is bigger than the original injury. It is due to an overproduction of collagen fibers.

  collagen  Firm, white protein connective tissue fibers that branch through the dermis.

  comedo  A blackhead, formed when excess sebum builds up around the hair shaft, hardens, and blocks the follicle. The oily sebum traps dirt and enlarges the pore, turning black as its oil is oxidized from exposure to the air.

  contusion  Blunt force injury that causes bleeding but does not break the skin. It turns the skin black and blue. Also known as a bruise. A hematoma is a large, elevated, localized collection of blood under the skin. An ecchymosis is a flat area of hemorrhage under the skin. Petechiae are pinpoint hemorrhages in the skin.

  corticosteroid drug  Anti-inflammatory drugs given to suppress the immune response and decrease inflammation.

  cryosurgery  Medical procedure to destroy small areas of abnormal tissue on the cervix. A cryoprobe containing extremely cold liquid nitrogen is touched to the areas to freeze and destroy the tissues.

  culture and sensitivity  Laboratory test that puts a swab of material from an infection onto culture medium in a Petri dish to identify the cause of an infection.

  curet  A metal instrument that ends in a small, circular or oval ring with a sharp edge, used during a medical procedure known as curettage. The curet is used to scrape off the superficial part of a skin lesion.

  curettage  Medical procedure that involves using a curet to scrape off the superficial part of a skin lesion. A curet is a metal instrument that ends in a small, circular or oval ring with a sharp edge.

  cutaneous  Pertaining to the skin.

  cuticle  Layer of dead skin that arises from the epidermis around the proximal end of the nail. It keeps microorganisms from the nail root.

  cyanosis  Bluish-gray discoloration of the skin and nails due to decreased oxygen levels in the blood.

  cyanotic  Pertaining to cyanosis, a bluish-gray discoloration of the skin and nails due to decreased oxygen levels in the blood.

  cyst  A type of lesion that is an elevated, circular mound. It is semisolid or partly fluid filled.

  debridement  Medical or surgical procedure in which necrotic tissue is debrided (removed) from a burn, wound, or ulcer. Debridement is done to remove dead tissue that can become the source of infection and to assessment the extent or depth of a wound.

  decubitus ulcer  Pressure injury from constantly lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues. The epidermis and then dermis break down and slough off, resulting in a shallow or deep wound. Decubitus ulcers occur at pressure points overlying bony prominences such as the hip or sacrum. Also known as pressure sores or bed sores.

  dermabrasion  Uses a rapidly spinning wire brush or diamond surface to mechanically abrade (scrape away) the epidermis.

  dermal  Of the skin.

  dermatitis  General category for any inflammation of the skin.

  dermatologist  Physician who practices in the medical specialty of dermatology. They diagnose and treat patients with diseases of the skin.

  dermatology  Medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat integumentary diseases.

  dermatome  Specific area of the skin that sends sensory information to a specific spinal nerve.

  dermatoplasty  Surgical procedure for any type of plastic surgery of the skin, such as skin grafting, removal of keloids, release of skin contractures, and so forth.

  dermis  Layer of skin under the epidermis. It is composed of collagen and elastin fibers. It contains arteries, veins, nerves, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair follicles.

  diaphoresis  Profuse sweating caused by an underlying disease condition such as myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, or withdrawal from narcotic drugs.

  diaphoretic  Of diaphresis, profuse sweating caused by an underlying disease condition such as myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, or withdrawal from narcotic drugs.

  dysplastic nevus  A mole (nevus) with irregular edges and variations in color. It can develop into malignant melanoma.

  ecchymosis  A flat area of hemorrhage under the skin that occurs after a blunt force injury that causes bleeding but does not break the skin.

  eczema  Overproduction of sebum, particularly on the face and scalp, that occurs at a time other than puberty and results in oily areas that are interspersed with patches of dry, scaly skin and dandruff.

  edema  Excessive amounts of fluid move from the blood into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue and cause swelling.

  elastin  Elastic, yellow protein fibers in the dermis.

  electrodesiccation  Medical procedure that uses electrical current to remove small cancerous tumors. The electrode is touched to or inserted into the cancerous tumor.

  electrosection  Medical procedure that uses an electrical current through a wire loop electrode to cut tissue in order to remove a nevus, wart, skin tag, or small malignant lesion.

  electrosurgery  Medical procedure that involves the use of electrical current to remove a nevus, wart, skin tag, or small malignant lesion.

  epidermal  Of the epidermis, the thin, outermost layer of skin. The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells filled with keratin. The deepest part (basal layer) contains constantly dividing cells and melanocytes.

  epidermis  Thin, outermost layer of skin. The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells filled with keratin. The deepest part (basal layer) contains constantly dividing cells and melanocytes.

  epithelial  Of the epithelium, a category that includes the skin and all of its structures that cover the external surface of the body, but also includes the mucous membranes that line the walls of internal cavities that connect to the outside of the body.

  epithelium  Category that includes the skin and all of its structures that cover the external surface of the body, but also includes the mucous membranes that line the walls of internal cavities that connect to the outside of the body. Also known as epithelial tissue.

  erythema  Reddish discoloration of the skin. It can be confined to one area of local inflammation or infection, or it can affect large areas of the skin surface as in sunburn.

  erythematous  Of erythema, a reddish discoloration of the skin. Erythema can be confined to one area of local inflammation or infection, or it can affect large areas of the skin surface as in sunburn.

  eschar  A thick, crusty scar of necrotic tissue that forms on a third degree burn.

  excisional biopsy  An incision is made to expose the suspected cancer, and the entire tumor is removed along with a surrounding margin of normal tissue.

  excoriation  Superficial injury with a sharp object such as a fingernail or thorn that creates a linear scratch in the skin.

  exfoliation  Normal process of constant shedding of dead skin cells from the most superficial part of the epidermis.

  exocrine gland  Type of gland that secretes substances through a duct.

  exudate  Dried fluid deposit discharged through pores or an incision.

  fissure  Deep division that runs anteriorly to posteriorly across the surface of the cerebrum and divides it into right and left hemispheres.

  follicle  Mass of cells with a hollow center. It holds an oocyte before puberty and a maturing ovum after puberty. The follicle ruptures at the time of ovulation and becomes the corpus luteum.

  follicular  Of the follicle, the site where a hair is formed. The follicle is located in the dermis.

  folliculitis  Inflammation or infection of the hair follicle.

  fulguration  Medical procedure that uses electrical current to remove small cancerous tumors. The electrode is held away from the skin and transmits the electrical current as a spark to the skin surface.

  furuncle  A localized abscess around a hair follicle that causes the skin to be elevated, painful, and red. Also known as a boil.

 

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