Sliding injury that mechanically removes the epidermal layer of the skin to reveal the dermis beneath. Also known as a brush burn.
Localized, pus-containing pocket caused by a bacterial infection in a skin injury. The infection is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a common bacterium on the skin. A furuncle is a localized abscess around a hair follicle that causes the skin to be elevated, painful, and red. Also known as a boil. A carbuncle is composed of several large furuncles with connected, draining sinuses that channel through the subcutaneous tissue or to the skin surface. There are also areas of tissue necrosis. Tooth with a localized area of pain, swelling, redness, and a pus-producing infection and local areas of dead tissue. The infection can extend from the tooth into the jawbone. Treatment: Antibiotic drugs, root canal treatment, or tooth extraction.
During puberty, the sebaceous glands are especially active and produce large amounts of sebum, particularly on the forehead, nose, chin, shoulders, and back. The excess sebum builds up around the hair shaft, hardens, and blocks the follicle. The blocked secretions elevate the skin and form a reddish papule. In other hair follicles, the oily sebum traps dirt and enlarges the pore. The sebum turns black as its oil is oxidized from exposure to the air. This forms a comedo (blackhead). As bacteria feed on the sebum, they release irritating substances that produce inflammation. Large numbers of bacteria produce an infection. The body sends white blood cells to this area, forming pustules (whiteheads). In severe cystic acne, the papules enlarge to form deep, pus-filled cysts. The clinical picture is a combination of papules, comedos, pustules, and, in some cases, cysts.
Raised, irregular, rough areas of skin that are dry and feel like sandpaper. Develop in middle-aged persons in areas chronically exposed to the sun. They can develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Also known as solar keratoses.
A waxy substance that forms on adipose tissue if a body is buried in moist dirt.
Large deposits of triglycerides; body fat.
White to light pink skin coloration. Genetic mutation that causes nonfunctioning melanocytes that do not produce melanin. There is a lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and iris of the eyes.
Foreign cells from plants or animals (foods, pollens, molds, animal dander), as well as dust, chemicals, and drugs that cause an allergic response when inhaled or injected (or injected into) hypersensitive people.
Response to an allergen in certain hypersensitive people. Allergy symptoms are based on the release of histamine.
Uses a skin graft taken from a cadaver. It is frozen and stored in a skin bank until needed. This is a temporary skin graft to protect the patient against infection and fluid loss. It is rejected by the patient’s body in about a week.
Acute or chronic loss of scalp hair.
Of or like anaphylaxis, a severe systemic allergic reaction characterized by bronchoconstriction, hypotension, and shock.
Severe systemic allergic reaction characterized by bronchoconstriction, hypotension, and shock. Also known as anaphylactic shock.
Condition in which sensation of any type, including touch, pressure, proprioception, or pain, has been completely lost.
Congenital absence of the sweat glands and inability to tolerate heat.
A drug that treats bacterial infections.
Drug that treats ringworm (tinea). Also treats fungal infection of the nails.
A drug that decreases itching.
A drug that treats viral infections.
Uses a skin graft taken from another part of the patient’s body.
Of the deepest layer of the epidermis of the skin.
Surgical procedure to remove a small piece of tissue for examination to look for abnormal or cancerous cells.
Plastic surgery procedure to the eyelids to remove fat and sagging skin. Often done in conjunction with a face-lift.
Repetitive rubbing injury that mechanically separates the epidermis from the dermis and releases tissue fluid. A blister is a fluid-filled sac with a thin, transparent covering of epidermis.
Medical procedure in which Botox is injected into the muscles of the forehead that cause deep skin wrinkles between the eyebrows and into the muscles that cause wrinkles at the corners of the eyes.
Small blisters formed by a second-degree burn as the epidermis detaches from the dermis and the space between them fills with tissue fluid.
Plural form of bulla.
Repetitive rubbing injury that causes the epidermis to gradually thicken into a wide, elevated pad. A corn is a callus with a hard central area with a pointed tip that causes pain and inflammation of deeper skin tissues.
General word for any type of cancerous cell or tumor. There are four broad categories of cancer: carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, and embryonal cell.
An abscess composed of large furuncles with connecting channels through the subcutaneous tissue or to the skin surface.
Cancer of epithelial cells in the skin and mucous membranes of organs. Carcinomas grow more slowly than sarcomas, but they occur more frequently. Carcinomas usually metastasize via the lymphatic system.
Spreading inflammation and infection of the connective tissues of the skin and muscle. It develops from a superficial cut, scratch, insect bite, blister, or splinter that becomes infected. The infecting bacteria produce enzymes that break down cell membranes and allow the infection to spread between the tissue layers.
Chemotherapy drugs specifically target cancer cells. They may be given intravenously into a vein, or into an artery, or cavity, or implanted in a wafer.
Blotchy, darkened pigmentation of the skin of the face because of the action of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) from the anterior pituitary gland during pregnancy.
Fibrous tissue composed of collagen that replaces injured skin tissue as the injury heals. Also known as a scar. A keloid is a very firm, abnormally large scar that is bigger than the original injury. It is due to an overproduction of collagen fibers.
Firm, white protein connective tissue fibers that branch through the dermis.
A blackhead, formed when excess sebum builds up around the hair shaft, hardens, and blocks the follicle. The oily sebum traps dirt and enlarges the pore, turning black as its oil is oxidized from exposure to the air.
Blunt force injury that causes bleeding but does not break the skin. It turns the skin black and blue. Also known as a bruise. A hematoma is a large, elevated, localized collection of blood under the skin. An ecchymosis is a flat area of hemorrhage under the skin. Petechiae are pinpoint hemorrhages in the skin.
Anti-inflammatory drugs given to suppress the immune response and decrease inflammation.
Medical procedure to destroy small areas of abnormal tissue on the cervix. A cryoprobe containing extremely cold liquid nitrogen is touched to the areas to freeze and destroy the tissues.
culture and sensitivity
Laboratory test that puts a swab of material from an infection onto culture medium in a Petri dish to identify the cause of an infection.
A metal instrument that ends in a small, circular or oval ring with a sharp edge, used during a medical procedure known as curettage. The curet is used to scrape off the superficial part of a skin lesion.
Medical procedure that involves using a curet to scrape off the superficial part of a skin lesion. A curet is a metal instrument that ends in a small, circular or oval ring with a sharp edge.
Pertaining to the skin.
Layer of dead skin that arises from the epidermis around the proximal end of the nail. It keeps microorganisms from the nail root.
Bluish-gray discoloration of the skin and nails due to decreased oxygen levels in the blood.
Pertaining to cyanosis, a bluish-gray discoloration of the skin and nails due to decreased oxygen levels in the blood.
A type of lesion that is an elevated, circular mound. It is semisolid or partly fluid filled.
Medical or surgical procedure in which necrotic tissue is debrided (removed) from a burn, wound, or ulcer. Debridement is done to remove dead tissue that can become the source of infection and to assessment the extent or depth of a wound.
Pressure injury from constantly lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues. The epidermis and then dermis break down and slough off, resulting in a shallow or deep wound. Decubitus ulcers occur at pressure points overlying bony prominences such as the hip or sacrum. Also known as pressure sores or bed sores.
Uses a rapidly spinning wire brush or diamond surface to mechanically abrade (scrape away) the epidermis.
Of the skin.
General category for any inflammation of the skin.
Physician who practices in the medical specialty of dermatology. They diagnose and treat patients with diseases of the skin.
Medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat integumentary diseases.
Specific area of the skin that sends sensory information to a specific spinal nerve.
Surgical procedure for any type of plastic surgery of the skin, such as skin grafting, removal of keloids, release of skin contractures, and so forth.
Layer of skin under the epidermis. It is composed of collagen and elastin fibers. It contains arteries, veins, nerves, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and hair follicles.
Profuse sweating caused by an underlying disease condition such as myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, or withdrawal from narcotic drugs.
Of diaphresis, profuse sweating caused by an underlying disease condition such as myocardial infarction, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, or withdrawal from narcotic drugs.
A mole (nevus) with irregular edges and variations in color. It can develop into malignant melanoma.
A flat area of hemorrhage under the skin that occurs after a blunt force injury that causes bleeding but does not break the skin.
Overproduction of sebum, particularly on the face and scalp, that occurs at a time other than puberty and results in oily areas that are interspersed with patches of dry, scaly skin and dandruff.
Excessive amounts of fluid move from the blood into the dermis or subcutaneous tissue and cause swelling.
Elastic, yellow protein fibers in the dermis.
Medical procedure that uses electrical current to remove small cancerous tumors. The electrode is touched to or inserted into the cancerous tumor.
Medical procedure that uses an electrical current through a wire loop electrode to cut tissue in order to remove a nevus, wart, skin tag, or small malignant lesion.
Medical procedure that involves the use of electrical current to remove a nevus, wart, skin tag, or small malignant lesion.
Of the epidermis, the thin, outermost layer of skin. The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells filled with keratin. The deepest part (basal layer) contains constantly dividing cells and melanocytes.
Thin, outermost layer of skin. The most superficial part of the epidermis consists of dead cells filled with keratin. The deepest part (basal layer) contains constantly dividing cells and melanocytes.
Of the epithelium, a category that includes the skin and all of its structures that cover the external surface of the body, but also includes the mucous membranes that line the walls of internal cavities that connect to the outside of the body.
Category that includes the skin and all of its structures that cover the external surface of the body, but also includes the mucous membranes that line the walls of internal cavities that connect to the outside of the body. Also known as epithelial tissue.
Reddish discoloration of the skin. It can be confined to one area of local inflammation or infection, or it can affect large areas of the skin surface as in sunburn.
Of erythema, a reddish discoloration of the skin. Erythema can be confined to one area of local inflammation or infection, or it can affect large areas of the skin surface as in sunburn.
A thick, crusty scar of necrotic tissue that forms on a third degree burn.
An incision is made to expose the suspected cancer, and the entire tumor is removed along with a surrounding margin of normal tissue.
Superficial injury with a sharp object such as a fingernail or thorn that creates a linear scratch in the skin.
Normal process of constant shedding of dead skin cells from the most superficial part of the epidermis.
Type of gland that secretes substances through a duct.
Dried fluid deposit discharged through pores or an incision.
Deep division that runs anteriorly to posteriorly across the surface of the cerebrum and divides it into right and left hemispheres.
Mass of cells with a hollow center. It holds an oocyte before puberty and a maturing ovum after puberty. The follicle ruptures at the time of ovulation and becomes the corpus luteum.
Of the follicle, the site where a hair is formed. The follicle is located in the dermis.
Inflammation or infection of the hair follicle.
Medical procedure that uses electrical current to remove small cancerous tumors. The electrode is held away from the skin and transmits the electrical current as a spark to the skin surface.
A localized abscess around a hair follicle that causes the skin to be elevated, painful, and red. Also known as a boil.