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Chapter 3: G-O Audio Glossary

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Chapter 3: A-F Audio Glossary    Chapter 3: G-O Audio Glossary    Chapter 3: P-Z Audio Glossary

 

Chapter 3: G-O Audio Glossary

  gallbladder  Small, dark green sac posterior to the liver that stores and concentrates bile. When stimulated by cholecystokinin from the duodenum, it contracts and releases bile into the common bile duct to the duodenum.

  gastrectomy  Surgical procedure to remove part of the stomach because of a cancerous tumor.

  gastric  Pertaining to the stomach.

  gastrin  Hormone produced by the stomach that stimulates the release of hydrocholoric acid and pepsinogen in the stomach.

  gastritis  Acute or chronic inflammation of the stomach due to eating spicy foods, excess acid production, or a bacterial infection.

  gastroenteritis  Acute inflammation or infection of the stomach and intestines.

  gastroenterologist  Medical specialist who deals with the gastrointestinal system.

  gastroenterology  Medical specialty that deals with the gastrointestinal system.

  gastrointestinal system (GI)  Body system that includes the mouth, teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder and pancreas. It digests food, absorbs nutrients into the blood, and excretes undigested waste products. Also known as the gastrointestinal tract, digestive system or tract, and the alimentary canal.

  gastroplasty  Surgical procedure to treat severely obese patients. Staples are placed down one side of the stomach, making the stomach much smaller.

  gastroscope  Medical instrument used for visualization and examination of the stomach.

  gastroscopy  Visualization and examination of the stomach using a gastroscope.

  gastrostomy  A surgically created stoma (opening) in the abdominal wall with a short tube inserted into the stomach.

  gland  One of the structures of the endocrine system that secretes hormones directly into the blood.

  glossal  Pertaining to the tongue.

  gluten enteropathy  Also known as celiac disease. Weight loss and tissue damage in the small intestine caused by the immune response’s reaction to the gluten in wheat products. Gluten is the protein in wheat that gives dough its elastic quality.

  guaiac  A chemical reagent. When a fecal occult blood test is conducted, a sample of feces is placed on paper and mixed with the chemical reagant guaiac. If blood is present, the guaiac will react and turn the paper blue (guaiac-positive stool). Hemoccult and Coloscreen cards can be purchased by consumers for home testing. These tests use guaiac-impregnated paper.

  haustra  Series of small outpouchings in the walls of the large intestine that expand or contract to accommodate varying amounts of food.

  hematemesis  Vomiting of new or old blood.

  hematochezia  Blood in the stool. The source of bleeding can be an ulcer, cancer, Crohn’s disease, polyp, diverticulum, or hemorrhoid.

  hemorrhoid  A swollen, protruding vein in the rectum (internal hemorrhoid) or on the perianal skin (external hemorrhoid). Also known as a pile.

  hemorrhoidectomy  Surgical procedure to remove hemorrhoids from the rectum or around the anus.

  hepatic  Pertaining to or affecting the liver.

  hepatitis  Inflammation and infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis virus.

  hepatocyte  Liver cell.

  hepatoma  Cancer of the liver cells. Also known as hepatocellular carcinoma.

  hepatomegaly  Enlargement of the liver due to liver damage from cirrhosis, hepatitis, or cancer.

  hernia  A weakness in the muscles of the abdominal wall that allows loops of intestine to balloon outward.

  herniorrhaphy  Surgical procedure that uses sutures to close a defect in a muscle wall where there is a hernia.

  hiatal hernia  Weakness in the diaphragm, the muscular wall between the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities, that allows the esophagus or stomach to slide through and balloon into the thoracic cavity. Also known as a hiatus hernia.

  hiatus hernia  Weakness in the diaphragm, the muscular wall between the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities, that allows the esophagus or stomach to slide through and balloon into the thoracic cavity. Also known as a hiatal hernia.

  hydrochloric acid  Strong acid produced by the stomach to break down food, kill microorganisms on food, and convert pepsinogen to the active digestive enzyme pepsin.

  hyperemesis gravidarum  Excessive vomiting during the first few months of pregnancy.

  ileal  Pertaining to the ileum.

  ileostomy  Surgical procedure to remove part of the ileum and colon and create a stoma.

  ileum  Third and last part of the small intestine. It connects to the cecum of the large intestine.

  ileus  Abnormal absence of peristalsis in the small and large intestines.

  imperforate anus  A congenital abnormality in which the rectum is closed.

  incarcerated hernia  An incarcerated hernia is one in which there is swelling and the intestines can no longer be pushed back into the abdominopelvic cavity. Also known as an irreducible hernia.

  incisional hernia  A hernia that occurs along the suture line of a prior surgical incision.

  incontinence  Inability to voluntarily control bowel movements and/or to keep urine in the bladder.

  incontinent  Having incontinence, the inability to voluntarily control bowel movements and/or to keep urine in the bladder.

  indigestion  Epigastric pain that may be accompanied by gas or nausea. Also known as dyspepsia.

  inflammatory  Characterized by inflammation, a swelling or loss of function as a result of injury or infection.

  intestinal  Pertaining to the intestine, the organ of digestion made up of the small intestine and the large intestine.

  intestine  Organ of digestion, made up of the small intestine and the large intestine. Also known as the bowels.

  intravenous  Provide hydration and calories to patients who temporarily cannot eat, usually due to surgery. The most commonly used intravenous fluids contain dextrose, saline, electrolytes, or a combination of these.

  intussusception  Telescoping of one segment of intestine into the lumen of an adjacent segment.

  jaundice  Yellowish discoloration of the skin and whites of the eyes. There are increased levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. Jaundice is associated with liver disease.

  jejunal  Pertaining to the jejunum, the second part of the small intestine.

  jejunostomy  Surgical procedure to create a permanent opening from the abdominal wall into the jejunum through which to insert a jejunostomy tube.

  jejunum  Second part of the small intestine.

  lactase  Digestive enzyme that breaks down lactose, the sugar in milk.

  laparoscope  A fiberoptic endoscope, used during laparoscopy and inserted through the incision made near the umbilicus so that carbon dioxide gas can be used to inflate the abdominal cavity. Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure to visualize the pelvic cavity, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries for diagnosis, biopsy, or surgery to remove or repair.

  laparoscopic  Pertaining to a laparoscope, a fiberoptic endoscope, used during laparoscopy and inserted through the incision made near the umbilicus so that carbon dioxide gas can be used to inflate the abdominal cavity. Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure to visualize the pelvic cavity, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries for diagnosis, biopsy, or surgery to remove or repair.

  laparoscopy  Surgical procedure to visualize the pelvic cavity, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries for diagnosis, biopsy, or surgery to remove or repair. A small incision is made by the umbilicus and carbon dioxide gas is used to inflate the abdominal cavity. Then a laparoscope, a fiberoptic endoscope, is inserted through the incision.

  laparotomy  Surgical procedure that uses an abdominal incision to widely open the abdominopelvic cavity so that it can be explored.

  lingual  Pertaining to the tongue.

  lipase  Digestive enzyme from the pancreas that breaks down fat globules in the duodenum into fatty acids.

  liver  Largest organ in the body. It produces bile.

  liver transplantation  Surgical procedure to remove a severely damaged liver from a patient with end-stage liver disease and insert a new liver from a donor. The patient (the recipient) is matched by blood type and tissue type to the donor. Liver transplant patients must take immunosuppressant drugs for the rest of their lives to keep their bodies from rejecting the foreign tissue that is their new liver.

  lumen  Central opening inside a blood vessel through which the blood flows.

  malrotation  Twisting of a loop of intestine around itself or around another segment of intestine because of a structural abnormality of the mesentery.

  mastication  Process of chewing, during which the teeth and tongue together tear, crush, and grind food. This is part of the process of mechanical digestion.

  meconium  Thick, sticky, greenish-black stool that is the first stool passed by a newborn baby.

  medical assistant  Allied health professionals who perform and document a variety of clinical and laboratory procedures and assist the physician during medical procedures in the office or clinic.

  melena  Dark, tarry stools that contain digested blood due to bleeding in the esophagus or stomach. These stools are said to be melenic.

  melenic  Pertaining to melena, the dark, tarry stools that contain digested blood due to bleeding in the esophagus or stomach.

  mesenteric  Pertaining tomesentery, the membranous sheet of peritoneum that supports the jejunum and ileum.

  mesentery  Membranous sheet of peritoneum that supports the jejunum and ileum.

  mucosa  Mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract. It warms and humidifies incoming air. It produces mucus to trap foreign particles. Mucous membrane lining the inside of the bladder. Lining throughout the gastrointestinal system that consists of a mucous membrane that produces mucus and an underlying smooth muscle layer that contracts to move food.

  mucosal  Pertaining to the mucous membranes.

  mucous  Pertaining to, containing, or secreting mucus.

  nausea  An unpleasant, queasy feeling in the stomach that precedes the urge to vomit.

  nauseated  Having nausea, an unpleasant, queasy feeling in the stomach that precedes the urge to vomit.

  obstipation  Severe, unrelieved constipation.

  obstructive  Hindering or blocking.

  odynophagia  Difficult or painful eating or swallowing.

  omentum  Broad, fatty pouch of peritoneum that supports the stomach and hangs down over the small intestine to protect and cushion it.

  omphalocele  An umbilical hernia that is present at birth and only has a thin covering of peritoneum rather than skin.

  oncologist  Physicians who specialize in treating patients with cancer. After the patient’s cancer has been diagnosed, a medical oncologist assigns a grade and stage to the cancer and prescribes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination of all three, depending on the type of cancer and how advanced it is. Medical oncologists calculate the dosage of the chemotherapy drugs based on the patient’s body weight.

  ova and parasites  Diagnostic test to determine if there is a parasitic infection of the gastrointestinal tract. Ova are the eggs of parasitic worms. They can be seen in the stool or by examining a sample of stool under a microscope.

 

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