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Abortion   the termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is viable

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome   (AIDS) a life-threatening, end-stage infection with HIV

Adoption   legal transfer of responsibility for raising a child from the birth mother to the adoptive parent(s)

Artificial insemination   process of artificially instilling sperm into the vagina or uterus

Barriers   including male and female condoms, vaginal diaphragms, and cervical caps are devices placed in the vagina or over the penis to prevent sperm from entering the cervix

Basal body temperature   body temperature in the morning before rising, moving about, or eating anything

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)   a prostate disorder in which the prostate gland enlarges in the center, compressing surrounding tissue and narrowing the urethra

Breast reconstruction   mammoplasty

Candidiasis   (also known as Monilia or yeast infection) a common organism causing vaginitis

Cervical dysplasia   abnormal changes in the tissue of the cervix

Chancre   painless open sore

Chlamydia   a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

Climacteric   menopause, the permanent cessation of menstruation

Complete abortion   results when all the fetal tissue is passed, the cervix closes, and minimal bleeding occurs

Conization   removal of a cone-shaped wedge of tissue from the cervix

Conjoined twins   (also known as Siamese twins) condition that results when the division of a fertilized egg occurs without complete separation or cleavage

Contraception   prevention of pregnancy

Cyst   fluid-filled sac

Cystocele   prolapse of the urinary bladder into the vagina

Dysmenorrhea   painful menses

Dyspareunia   painful intercourse

Ectopic   outside normal placement (as in pregnancy outside the uterus)

Elective abortion (EAB)   abortion performed at the request of the mother but not for reason of maternal risk or fetal disease

Endometriosis   the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrheal

Epididymitis   inflammation of the epididymus

Erectile dysfunction   (also known as ED, or impotence) the inability to achieve or maintain an erection that allows for satisfactory sexual intercourse

Fertility awareness   family planning based on the assumption that ovulation takes place at the same time each month

Fibroadenoma   a freely movable rounded mass with well-defined borders and a solid rubbery texture

Fibrocyst   fluid-filled mass

Fibrosis   replacement of inflamed or damaged tissue with connective or scar tissue

Fraternal twins   twins that occur from two eggs fertilized by two sperm; they generally have two separate placentas, amnions, chorions, and could be different genders; dizygotic twins

Genital warts   (also known as condylomata acuminatum) a sexually transmitted infection with human papilloma virus

Gonorrhea   a sexually transmitted infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Hemoptysis   bloody sputum

Hirsuitism   excessive hair growth

Hormonal contraceptives   contraceptives, usually a combination of estrogen and progesterone, which are available in a variety of forms

Human immunodeficiency virus   (HIV) a retrovirus that attacks and destroys the body’s immune system

Hydrocele   fluid in the scrotal sac

Hyperplasia   excessive proliferation of normal cells

Hysterectomy   removal of the uterus

In vitro fertilization   process of uniting eggs and sperm in a test tube in the laboratory

Incest   sexual intercourse between close blood relatives that may or may not be consensual

Incomplete abortion   abortion that occurs when the fetus is passed but the placenta is retained in the uterus

Inevitable abortion   abortion that occurs when the cervix dilates and part of the placenta detaches from the uterus resulting in moderate to heavy bleeding

Infertility   inability to achieve pregnancy after a year or more of unprotected intercourse

Intraductal papillomas   tumors growing in a mammary duct, most commonly occurring during menopause

Intrauterine device (IUD)   a small T-shaped piece of metal covered with copper or levonorgestrel that is placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy

Karyotype   a picture analysis of the chromosomes

Libido   sexual drive

Lumpectomy   removal of a lump (usually cancerous) from a woman’s breast

Mammography   imaging exam of the breast with x-rays, ultrasound, or nuclear magnetic resonance

Mammoplasty   breast reconstruction

Mastectomy   removal of the breast

Menorrhagia   excessive menstruation in volume or number of days

Menorrhalgia   (also known as dysmenorrhea) painful menses

Metrorrhagia   bleeding between periods

Miscarriage   (also known as spontaneous abortion) nonelective abortion that occurs within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy

Missed abortion   condition in which the fetus dies, but spontaneous abortion does not occur

Mittelschmerz   abdominal pain with ovulation

Monilia   (also known as Candidiasis or yeast infection) a common organism causing vaginitis

Monozygotic twins   (also known as identical twins) twins that result when one fertilized egg divides into separate embryos

Multifetal pregnancy   a pregnancy with more than one fetus

Multiple pregnancy   multifetal pregnancy

Myomectomy   removal of tumor and surrounding myometrium

Nocturia   the need to void frequently at night

Oophorectomy   surgical removal of one or both ovaries

Orchiectomy   removal of one testis and spermatic cord

Orchitis   inflammation of the testes

Ovarian cancer   the most lethal of female reproductive cancers, remains asymptomatic until the cancer has spread to surrounding tissue or has been transported by the lymphatic system to other parts of the body; risk factors include older age, early menarche, late menopause, history of infertility, treatment of infertility with Colomid (clomiphene), and history of breast or ovarian cancer

Peer pressure   influencing a person to follow the desire or behavior of the group

Polycystic ovary syndrome   (PCOS) condition that results from numerous follicular cysts

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)   a group of symptoms resulting from an imbalance of estrogen and progesterone, as well as increased prolactin and aldosterone levels

Prostate cancer   leading type of cancer in men; it rarely occurs before the age of 40; usually begins in the posterior region of the prostate and may spread into the seminiferous tubules or bladder

Prostatitis   inflammation of the prostate

Rape   forced sexual intercourse including vaginal, anal, or oral penetration

Rectocele   develops when the anterior rectal wall protrudes into the vagina

Reduction mammoplasty   reduction in the size of the breast by removing fat tissue with an attempt to leave the mammary glands intact

Salpingo-oophorectomy   removal of the uterus and both ovaries

Spermicides   chemicals in the form of creams, foams, jellies, or suppositories that are inserted into the vagina prior to sexual intercourse in order to prevent conception

Spinnbarkeit   the stringy, elastic character of cervical mucus during the ovulatory period

Spontaneous abortion   (also known as miscarriage) nonelective abortion that occurs within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy

Surgical sterilization   (also known as vasectomy or tubal ligation) the tying and cutting of the vas deferens or fallopian tubes

Syphilis   sexually transmitted infection caused by Treponema pallidum

Tenesmus   painful straining to defecate

Testicular cancer   cancer that grows within the testicle, eventually replacing all normal tissue

Therapeutic abortion (TAB)   the termination of the pregnancy to save the life and preserve the health of the mother or when the fetus has a serious, developmental or hereditary disorder

Threatened abortion   vaginal spotting noted with a closed cervix

Trichomoniasis   a sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis

Triplets   pregnancy that occurs from three separate eggs, from two eggs (one of which divides), or from one egg that divides into three embryos

Trisomy   the condition of having three copies of a given chromosome in each somatic cell rather than the normal number of two

Uterine prolapse   condition in which ligaments supporting the uterus in the pelvic cavity are stretched or damaged

Yeast infection   (also known as candidiasis or monilia) a common organism causing vaginitis

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