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Chapter Quiz

This activity contains 51 questions.

Question 1.
What term is defined as any police action initiated on the basis of race, ethnicity, or national origin of the suspect, rather than on the behavior of that individual?

End of Question 1

Question 2.
What elements are contained in the federal deadly force policy adopted by the FBI?

End of Question 2

Question 3.
What was the name of the commission that investigated police corruption in New York City during the 1970s?

End of Question 3

Question 4.
What factors make it difficult to control police corruption?

End of Question 4

Question 5.
What is the term used to describe when individuals bent on dying engage in behavior that causes responding officers to resort to deadly force?

End of Question 5

Question 6.
What are major sources of police civil liability?

End of Question 6

Question 7.
When an officer makes an arrest without just cause or simply impedes an individual's right to leave the scene without good reason, the officer may be liable for what charge?

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Question 8.
According to the FBI, what is the most common terminating event in an urban pursuit?

End of Question 8

Question 9.
According to the Knapp Commission, what is the name of the type of corrupt police officers who actively seek illicit moneymaking opportunities and solicit bribes through threat or intimidation?

End of Question 9

Question 10.
What are the two types of civil liability suits brought against law enforcement personnel?

End of Question 10

Question 11.
Civil lawsuits filed against police are based upon what?

End of Question 11

Question 12.
What are some of the characteristics of the police personality?

End of Question 12

Question 13.
When compared to male officers, female officers are likely to do what?

End of Question 13

Question 14.
What term is defined by the IACP as "the application of an amount and/or frequency of force greater than that required to compel compliance from a willing or unwilling subject"?

End of Question 14

Question 15.
What 1985 Supreme Court case specified the conditions under which deadly force could be used in the apprehension of suspected felons?

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Question 16.
What 1989 Supreme Court case established the standard of "objective reasonableness" concerning the use of deadly force?

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Question 17.
In 1995, the federal government announced it was adopting what standard for the use of deadly force by federal agents?

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Question 18.
What have recent studies discovered about problem police officers?

End of Question 18

Question 19.
What is calculated by measuring both the suspect's level of resistance and the officer's level of force on an equivalent scale and by then subtracting the level of resistance from the level of police force used?

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Question 20.
According to a study of fatal shootings by Los Angeles police officers, what percentage could be classified as "suicide by cop"?

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Question 21.
Which of the following is a main category of "suicide by cop"?

End of Question 21

Question 22.

What term is defined as any police action initiated on the basis of the race, ethnicity, or national origin of a suspect, rather than on the behavior of that individual or on information that leads the police to a particular individual who has been identified as being, or having been, engaged in criminal activity?
End of Question 22

Question 23.
According to experts, what are the most common sources of lawsuits against the police?

End of Question 23

Question 24.

What 1986 Supreme Court case ruled that a police officer who effects an arrest or conducts a search on the basis of an improperly issued warrant may be liable for monetary damages when a reasonably well-trained officer "would have known that his affidavit failed to establish probable cause and that he should not have applied for the warrant"?
End of Question 24

Question 25.

What 1984 court case resulted in an award for the innocent third party plaintiff injured by an out of control police car during a high-speed pursuit? The officer driving the cruiser had violated department policy prohibiting high-speed chases and the court found that he had not been properly trained.
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Question 26.
What 1989 Supreme Court case ruled that a "failure to train" can become the basis for legal liability on the part of a municipality where the "failure to train amounts to deliberate indifference to the rights of persons with whom the police come in contact"?

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Question 27.

What 1997 Supreme Court case ruled that to establish liability, plaintiffs must show that "the municipal action in question was not simply negligent, but was taken with 'deliberate indifference' as to its known or obvious consequences"? According to this decision, a municipality may not be held liable solely because it employs a person with an arrest record.
End of Question 27

Question 28.
In what 2001 Supreme Court case did the Court establish a two-prong test for assessing constitutional violations by government agents? This case involves the doctrine of qualified immunity.

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Question 29.
In what 1991 case did the Supreme Court address warrantless arrests and state that "even law enforcement officials who reasonably but mistakenly conclude that probable cause is present are entitled to immunity"?

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Question 30.
In what 2001 appellate court case did the court rule that federal law enforcement officers are not immune from state prosecution where their actions violate state law "either through malice or excessive zeal"?

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Question 31.
What personal indicators have been developed by U.S. Customs and the Drug Enforcement Administration that seem to be associated with increased likelihood of law violation?

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Question 32.
A police subculture is a relatively stable collection of beliefs and values that is unlikely to change from within.

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Question 33.
Policing is a highly discretionary, coercive activity that routinely takes place in private settings, out of the sight of supervisors, and in the presence of witnesses who are often regarded as unreliable.

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Question 34.
Most large city law enforcement agencies do not have their own internal affairs divisions.

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Question 35.
Under the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973, federal law enforcement employees are entitled to counseling and treatment before action can be taken toward termination.

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Question 36.
Drug and alcohol addictions are "handicaps" protected by the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

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Question 37.
According to a study by the FBI published before 2001, most officers who were killed were wearing protective vests.

End of Question 37

Question 38.
According to studies, no cases of AIDS virus infection have been traced to exposure to dried blood.

End of Question 38

Question 39.
The federal Bloodborne Pathogens Act of 1991 requires that police officers receive proper training in how to prevent contamination by bloodborne infectious agents.

End of Question 39

Question 40.
The suicide rate of police officers is more than ten times that of the general population.

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Question 41.
A new approach to managing stress among police officers holds that the amount of stress an officer experiences is directly related to his/her reactions to potentially stressful situations.

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Question 42.
Researchers have found levels of police officer fatigue to be less than those of shift workers in industrial or mining jobs.

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Question 43.
Research results indicate that, on average, the level of force that officers use is closely related to the type of training that their departments emphasize.

End of Question 43

Question 44.
The federal deadly force policy adopted by the FBI allows the firing of warning shots by agents.

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Question 45.
Research supports the claims that African-American and minority suspects are more likely to be shot by police than are whites.

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Question 46.
White officers are involved in the shootings of suspects more than any other officers.

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Question 47.
A study by James Fyfe, which analyzed police shootings in Memphis, Tennessee, found that African-American property offenders were twice as likely as whites to be shot by police.

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Question 48.
In 2003, the U.S. Department of Justice authorized the use of racial profiling in all law enforcement agencies, especially in cases that involve the possible identification of terrorist suspects.

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Question 49.
Profiling was originally intended to help catch drug couriers attempting to enter the country.

End of Question 49

Question 50.
Suits brought in state courts regarding civil liability have generally been the more common form of civil litigation involving police officers.

End of Question 50

Question 51.
In the past, the doctrine of sovereign immunity barred legal action against state and local governments.

End of Question 51

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