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This activity contains 20 questions.
The energy contained in a moving body is called _______________ energy.
If you were hit by a rock thrown at a velocity of 1 foot per second, then hit by the same rock thrown at 2 feet per second, the rock thrown at 2 feet per second would be:
Four times as harmful as the rock thrown at 1 foot per second because velocity is squared.
Equally harmful as the rock thrown at 1 foot per second as the mass is equal.
Twice as harmful as the rock thrown at 1 foot per second.
One half as harmful as the rock thrown at 1 foot per second since the impact area is greater.
A bullet fired from a gun does more damage than a knife propelled by a human hand because:
The bullet impacts the body at a higher velocity.
The bullet is traveling on its own, where a knife blade is controlled by the hand.
A bullet fired from a gun can momentarily have more mass than a knife blade.
The area of impact from the bullet is smaller than that of a knife blade.
Which of the following is correct regarding acceleration and deceleration?
A faster change in speed results in more force exerted.
Acceleration and deceleration are more of a factor in determining force of impact than mass and velocity.
If two cars of the same weight and speed stop, one by gradual braking, and the other by suddenly striking a telephone pole, they both exert the same force.
If a stopped car is struck from behind by an out-of-control truck, the sudden deceleration will cause the driver of the cars body to be jerked out from under his head and neck.
In the typical motor vehicle crash, there are actually three impacts. When responding to a motor vehicle crash, remember:
The vehicle collision, when the vehicle finally strikes an object, occurs last.
The first impact is the body collision, in which the occupant strikes the inside of the vehicle when he brakes suddenly to avoid the collision.
The organ collision occurs when the occupants internal organs move forward and strike the inside of the skull, chest, or abdomen.
The potential for injury decreases with a greater number of impacts, as there is less energy with each successive impact.
Vehicle collisions are a common mechanism of injury. Important points to remember include:
Death of another occupant of a vehicle usually means that occupant absorbed most of the energy, and other occupants will be less seriously injured.
Maintain a high index of suspicion if any passenger appears "dazed."
High-speed collisions do not result in any more serious injuries than medium- or low-speed collisions.
Mass is a key factor in mechanism of injury.
When caring for patients at a motor vehicle crash involving a frontal impact, remember:
The driver will continue to move forward at the same speed the vehicle was traveling.
A "spider web" crack should lead you to be suspicious about abdominal injuries.
"Up and over" injuries involve the knees, femurs, hips, acetabulum, and spine.
"Down and under" movement by the driver may cause him to be ejected though the windshield.
Types of injuries you should suspect in frontal impact collisions include:
Separation of the cartilage connecting the ribs and the sternum, which can result in a torn intercostal artery.
The "paper bag" syndrome, which results from compression of the abdomen against the steering column.
The aorta may tear as a result of compression force to the heart.
Air can be trapped in the lungs from a closure of the epiglottis, causing traumatic asphyxiation.
Which of the following is correct regarding motor vehicle crashes involving rotational impact or a rollover?
Crushing injuries to ejected occupants are less likely than to occupants that remain in the vehicle.
Injuries from rotational crashes are easily predictable when compared to other types of impacts.
Multiple systems injury is common in rollover crashes.
Vehicles with a high center of gravity are less likely to rollover than other vehicles.
After being hit by a vehicle, why will a child have a different pattern of injuries than an adult who was struck in an identical situation?
Adults tend to turn away from the impact, causing more injuries to the side of the body, whereas children will face the oncoming vehicle and sustain frontal injuries.
Children will usually drop to the ground in an attempt to avoid the collision, thereby sustaining more crush injuries. Adults, on the other hand, tend to leap up onto the hood of the oncoming vehicle, causing head and spine injuries as they impact the windshield.
An adult will, more often than not, attempt to turn and outrun the oncoming vehicle, causing tremendous injuries to the posterior once struck. Children will naturally attempt to jump out of the path of the vehicle and will sustain the majority of injuries to the side of the torso and legs.
Children will normally turn their backs to an oncoming vehicle, thereby sustaining more serious back and head injuries. The adult, conversely, will turn and face the vehicle prior to impact.
During an accident, the vehicle's airbag can cause eye, face, and _______________ injuries.
A pedestrian hit by a car or someone who has fallen onto a concrete pavement are examples of:
The Law of Acceleration.
The Law of Deceleration.
The Law of Inertia.
The Law of Motion.
What are the most common types of impact seen in motorcycle accidents?
Pavement, vegetation, and vehicular
Grill, hood, and windshield
Head-on, angular, and ejection
Angulated, lateral, and direct
Properly secured car seats restrain a child during a collision. Which of the following is true regarding car seats?
To prevent spinal cord injury, the car seat should face backwards in the upright position.
Injuries to children from airbag deployment are eliminated if the car seat is in the front passenger seat, facing backward.
Having the car seat facing backward, and in the reclining position, will reduce spinal cord injury during a collision.
Car seats should restrain a child at two points; mid pelvis and the chest.
Your patient was thrown from his ATV while traveling at approximately 20 mph. During your initial assessment, he tells you "I landed flat on my feet with both knees straight." Other than his ankles and heels, where would you suspect that he suffered the most serious injury?
Why is the exit wound of a bullet always larger than the entry wound?
As the bullet enters the skin it flattens out or "mushrooms," increasing its surface area. Thus, when it exits the body, it displaces more tissue than when it entered. This creates the larger exit wounds.
As the super-heated metal of the bullet proceeds through the skin, it burns away all tissue that it touches. The heat destruction radiates into a tubular shape along the trajectory of the bullet, causing the bullet's exit to be larger than its entrance.
When the bullet enters the dermis, it breaks into many small pieces that travel in different directions. As these many bullet pieces, called projectiles, pass out of the body, they destroy a wide path of tissue. As the structural integrity of the connective tissue is undermined, it quickly degrades, creating the cavernous appearance seen in bullet exit wounds.
As the bullet's energy dissipates into flesh, its kinetic energy is transferred to the tissues. This causes tremendous damage, called cavitation, in which blown-out tissue proceeds along the same trajectory as the bullet, only on a large scale. This causes exit wounds that are much larger than entry wounds.
Penetrating injuries are caused by an object that can penetrate the surface of the body. When caring for a patient with a penetrating injury, it is important to remember:
A shotgun wound is an example of a low-velocity injury.
Bullet exit wounds are generally larger than the entrance wounds due to the tumbling motion of the bullet.
The damaged caused by medium-velocity projectiles depends on the profile and the drag of the projectile.
The severity of injury caused by penetrating trauma is related to the velocity of the penetrating object.
Of fatal wounds that occur due to firearms, the majority occur to the torso and head. Which of the following is true regarding gunshot wounds?
The majority of abdominal wounds are rapidly fatal due to the many solid organs located there.
More than half of fatal gunshot wounds occur to the head.
Lung tissue is relatively tolerant of the cavitation caused by projectiles, as the spongy mass formed by the alveoli is easily movable.
If a projectile strikes the lower part of the chest or upper abdomen during exhalation, the projectile is more likely to enter above the contracted diaphragm.
Regardless of the cause, every explosion has three phases. These phases include:
The immediate phase in which injuries occur at the instant the blasts occurs.
The secondary phase in which injuries are due to flying debris propelled by the force of the blast.
The tertiary phase in which injuries are due to the pressure wave of the blast.
The primary phase in which injuries result from the patient being thrown away from the source of the blast.
When we speak of the "golden hour," we mean that there should be no more than one hour's time from:
The time of the injury until delivery of the patient into surgery.
The time EMS begins transport of the patient until the patient arrives at the hospital.
The time EMS arrives on scene until arrival of the patient at the hospital.
The time of the injury until the time EMS arrives.
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