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This activity contains 30 questions.
Respiratory emergencies may range from shortness of breath to complete respiratory arrest. The term used for shortness of breath is:
If the cells of the body are not getting an adequate supply of oxygen, they begin to die. This state of inadequate oxygen supply is called:
Many patients have breathing difficulty as the result of narrowed bronchioles of the lower airway due to tightening of the muscle layer. This condition is known as:
What is an example of a "mechanical" cause for dyspnea?
Congestive heart failure
_______________ is a clear indication of hypoxia.
While forming your general impression of a patient suffering respiratory difficulty, you note that he is sitting in the tripod position. This usually indicates:
Mild respiratory distress.
Severe respiratory distress.
Chest pain as well as breathing difficulty.
You are called to assist a 54-year-old male having breathing difficulty. As you enter the room, you note that he is reclining in his chair. This could indicate that:
The patient is in only mild distress.
The patient is too exhausted from trying to breathe to hold himself up.
The patient is in no distress at this time.
Any of the above.
The patient's speech may assist you in forming a general impression. Which of the following is true regarding the speech of a patient suffering breathing difficulty?
As long as the patient can talk, even incomprehensibly, distress is minimal.
The number of words the patient can speak during one breath usually correlates with the severity of the breathing difficulty.
Even if speech is normal, the patient may be suffering severe breathing difficulty.
If the patient is unable to speak, but is alert and makes eye contact with you, his breathing difficulty is not serious.
While assessing a patient with breathing difficulty, you see that he is restless, anxious, and somewhat confused as to what's going on. These signs are often caused by:
Hypoxia affecting the brain.
Shock due to bleeding within the lungs.
Over-use of the patient's metered-dose inhaler.
Fear due to the severity of the situation.
Positive pressure ventilation with supplemental oxygen is indicated whenever:
The patient complains of difficulty breathing, but the rate, chest rise, and exhalation volume appear to be adequate.
An infant has a respiratory rate of 40.
The patient must sit in a tripod position to breathe.
You see chest movement but cannot hear or feel an adequate movement of air.
The letters used to help you remember the questions to ask during the SAMPLE history of your patient with breathing difficulty are:
During your physical exam of the patient with breathing difficulty, signs that could indicate a severe breathing problem include:
Symmetrical chest wall movement.
A midline trachea.
Retractions at the suprasternal notch and behind the clavicles.
Flat jugular veins.
The possible side effects of albuterol include increased heart rate, nervousness, and:
An accurate way to determine how severe a patient's breathing difficulty is, is to:
Ask the patient to rate his breathing difficulty on a scale of 1 to 10, 10 being the worst breathing difficulty he has ever had.
Ask the patient to hold his breath for 30 seconds, then tell you if he feels better or worse.
Have the patient breathe into a paper bag for 10 minutes, then reassess.
Lay the patient supine and watch for any changes in breathing rate or skin color.
Common signs of breathing difficulty include all of the following EXCEPT:
Increased heart rate in infants and children.
Cyanosis to the core of the body.
Paradoxical motion of the chest.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the medical care of a patient with breathing difficulty?
High-concentration oxygen by nonrebreather mask should be provided to all apneic patients.
It is important to determine the exact cause of the breathing difficulty.
Positive pressure ventilation should not be provided.
You will use the same strategies for managing breathing difficulty for all patients.
If your patient is breathing adequately, but with difficulty, you should:
Apply supplemental oxygen by cannula at 1-6 liters/minute.
Verify breathing difficulty by using a pulse oximeter.
Contact medical control for permission to administer nitroglycerin.
Provide oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 15 liters/minute.
En route to the hospital, it is important to perform an ongoing assessment of the patient with breathing difficulty. While reevaluating your patient, remember that:
Decreased wheezing may not indicate improvement.
A decreasing heart rate in a patient who was tachycardia may indicate the patient is worsening.
The use of a metered-dose inhaler may normally cause the heart rate to slow.
Moist skin usually correlates with an improving condition.
Contraindications to an EMT administering a bronchodilator by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) to a patient include all of the following EXCEPT:
The MDI is not prescribed for the patient.
The patient is in severe respiratory distress.
The patient has already taken the maximum allowable dose.
The patient is not responsive enough to use the MDI.
Your 26-year-old female patient has breathing difficulty and has been prescribed a bronchodilator. Having met all the requirements to administer the medication, the steps include:
Placing the patient on a nasal cannula for convenience.
Having the patient inhale fully, then place her lips around the mouthpiece.
Instructing the patient to hold her breath as long as is comfortable after inhaling the medication.
Leaving the oxygen off the patient until you can assess if the medication worked.
The medication in most metered-dose inhalers is considered a beta-agonist. This means:
The medication's primary action is to the heart.
The medication dilates the airways.
The medication mimics the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system.
The medication constricts smooth muscle.
When administering a metered-dose inhaler, tips for the procedure include:
Coaching the patient to hold his breath as long as possible.
Being careful not to shake the canister.
Depressing the canister just before the patient begins inhaling.
Having the patient breathe in and out quickly.
Early signs of breathing difficulty in the infant or child include:
Retractions during inspiration.
Grunting, heard during inhalation.
Signs of respiratory failure in an infant or child include:
Cyanosis as an early sign.
Loss of muscle tone.
Emergency medical care steps for a child experiencing difficulty breathing include:
Removing him from his parent and securing him to the ambulance stretcher.
Applying a nasal cannula if the patient will not tolerate a nonrebreather mask.
Beginning positive pressure ventilations if breathing becomes inadequate.
Reassessing the patient every 15 minutes.
A condition that can cause obstruction of an infant's upper airway is swelling of the epiglottis from an infection. This condition is known as:
Snoring or rattling noises heard in the lungs upon auscultation are called:
A permanent disease process characterized by destruction of the alveolar walls and distention of the alveolar sacs is a type of COPD called:
A patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease may present with elements of both pulmonary emphysema and:
A condition in which a lung collapses without any chest trauma is called:
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