The goals of early childhood mathematics, science, and social studies curricula include an emphasis on critical thinking, problem solving, and lifelong learning rather than an overemphasis on the learning of facts. While other instructional methods have value, the constructivist approach to mathematics, science, and social studies learning is emphasized in the early childhood classroom. Children typically learn best when they build their own knowledge of the world through manipulating real-world objects and interacting with other people. Mathematics learning for young children includes classification, seriation, patterning, number concepts, measurement, geometry, and problem-solving experiences. An understanding of scientific content, process, and attitudes is essential to the science curriculum. When addressed in a developmentally appropriate way, the physical and biological sciences are all appropriate topics for discussion in the early childhood classrooms. The social studies curriculum helps young children understand relationships between people and environmental factors that influence their lives. It is important to integrate cognitive learnings with other components of the early childhood curriculum at the infant/toddler, preschool, and primary levels. Families play important roles in cognitive development during the early childhood years. Teachers and caregivers must help them understand the important learning opportunities that exist at home and provide ideas for facilitating growth in cognitive development.