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Chapter Outline, Learning Objectives, and Summary

Chapter Outline

Class Structure: Creating a Learning-Focused Environment

Self-Regulated Learners: Developing Student Responsibility

Teacher Characteristics: Personal Qualities That Increase Student Motivation to Learn

Climate Variables: Creating a Motivating Environment
Instructional Variables: Developing Interest in Learning Activities

Learning Objectives

After completing your study of this chapter, you should be able to
  1. Explain the differences between a learning-focused and a performance-focused classroom.
  2. Describe strategies that teachers can use to develop learner self-regulation, and explain different levels of student self-regulation.
  3. Identify the personal characteristics of teachers who increase students’ motivation to learn, and analyze these characteristics in classroom activities.
  4. Analyze teachers’ behaviors using the climate variables as a basis, and describe the relationships between the climate variables and the categories in the TARGET model.
  5. Identify examples of teachers implementing the instructional variables in learning activities.

Summary

  1. Explain the differences between a learning-focused and a performance-focused classroom.
    • Learning-focused classrooms focus on learning goals, those that emphasize increased understanding and mastery of tasks. Performance-focused classrooms emphasize performance goals, those that focus on demonstrating high ability, and particularly ability compared to others.
    • Learning-focused environments increase student motivation to learn, whereas performance-focused environments can detract from motivation to learn for all but the highest achievers.

  2. Describe strategies that teachers can use to develop learner self-regulation, and explain different levels of student self-regulation.
    • Learners’ responsibility can be increased by emphasizing the relationships between accepting responsibility for their own learning and the increased achievement that can result.
    • Soliciting student input in the process of establishing procedures that include student responsibility, treating responsibility as a concept by illustrating the consequences of taking and not taking responsibility, modeling responsibility, and providing concrete mechanisms that allow students to monitor and assess goal achievement are all strategies that can help students develop self-regulation.

  3. Identify the personal characteristics of teachers who increase students’ motivation to learn, and analyze these characteristics in classroom activities.
    • Personal teaching efficacy, modeling, caring, and having high expectations are personal characteristics that can increase student motivation to learn.
    • Teachers who are high in personal teaching efficacy believe they can help students learn, regardless of students’ prior knowledge or other factors.
    • Modeling courtesy and respect is essential for motivation, and demonstrating genuine interest in the topics they teach is the essence of teachers’ enthusiasm.
    • Teachers demonstrate that they care about their students by being willing to spend personal time with them and demonstrating respect for each individual. One of the most effective ways to demonstrate respect is to hold students to high standards. Holding students to high standards also communicates that teachers expect all students to succeed.

  4. Analyze teachers’ behaviors using the climate variables as a basis, and describe the relationships between the climate variables and the categories in the TARGET model.
    • Motivating environments are safe, secure, and orderly places that focus on learning.
    • Success on tasks students perceive as challenging increases motivation to learn. Meeting challenges provides evidence that competence is increasing, which also leads to feelings of autonomy. Both factors increase intrinsic motivation.
    • In motivating environments, students understand what they’re expected to learn and why they’re expected to do so. Understanding what they’re learning and why also increases perceptions of autonomy and contributes to task value.
    • The climate variables in the model for promoting student motivation correspond to the categories in the TARGET program with relationships between “challenge” and “task comprehension” and the TARGET category task; “order and safety” and authority; “success” and recognition; each of the climate variables and grouping; “success” and evaluation; and “task comprehension” and time.

  5. Identify examples of teachers implementing the instructional variables in learning activities.
    • Teachers can increase motivation to learn by beginning lessons with examples, activities, or questions that attract students’ attention and provide frameworks for information that follows.
    • Students maintain their attention and interest when teachers make content personally relevant to them and keep them highly involved in learning activities.
    • Teachers can increase student motivation to learn by providing feedback about learning progress. When feedback indicates that competence is increasing, self-efficacy and self-determination both improve, and intrinsic motivation increases.





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