After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
- Describe the incidence, morbidity and mortality of gastrointestinal emergencies.
- Identify the risk factors most predisposing to gastrointestinal emergencies.
- Discuss the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal system.
- Discuss the pathophysiology of abdominal inflammation and its relationship to acute pain.
- Define somatic, visceral, and referred pain as they relate to gastroenterology.
- Differentiate between hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic abdominal pain.
- Discuss the signs and symptoms and differentiate between local, general, and peritoneal inflammation relative to acute abdominal pain.
- Describe the questioning technique and specific questions when gathering a focused history in a patient with abdominal pain.
- Describe the technique for performing a comprehensive physical examination on a patient complaining of abdominal pain.
- Discuss the pathophysiology, assessment findings, and management of the following gastroenterological problems:
- Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
- Lower gastrointestinal bleeding
- Acute gastroenteritis
- Ulcer disease
- Bowel obstruction
- Crohn's disease
- Esophageal varices
- Acute hepatitis
- Differentiate between gastrointestinal emergencies based on assessment findings.
- Given several preprogrammed patients with abdominal pain and symptoms, provide the appropriate assessment, treatment, and transport.