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Chapter Objectives

The ten (10) chapter objectives listed in this module are the same as those found in the opening page of Chapter 11 of the textbook. However, several learning objectives have been written and listed below to help you focus on specific material that is critical to your being able to demonstrate proficiency on the broader chapter objectives. In addition, multiple choice and essay/activity self-assessment items have been written for most of the learning objectives to help assess your knowledge of this material. You can access these items through the Multiple Choice and Essay/Activity modules.

  1. List the steps involved in scoring standardized and self-developed tests.
    1.1Describe the characteristics of standardized and self-developed test scores.
    1.2Identify the advantages of scoring selected response items.
    1.3Explain the importance of delineating scoring steps and guidelines for open-ended items.
    1.4Explain the importance of checking for reliability when scoring tests.
    1.5Identify the advantages and disadvantages of machine scoring tests.

    multiple choice questions for Objective 1

  2. Describe the process of coding data, and give three examples of variables that would require coding.
    2.1Describe the ways by which data can be tabulated.
    2.2Create coded names for variables.
    2.3Create codes identifying participants and the levels of categorical or nominal variables.
    2.4Identify one advantage of initially calculating some descriptive statistics by hand.

    multiple choice questions for Objective 2

    web links for Objective 2

  3. List the steps involved in constructing a frequency polygon.
    3.1Identify the nature of the vertical and horizontal axes of a frequency polygon.
    3.2Interpret data presented in a frequency polygon.

    web links for Objective 3

  4. Define or describe three measures of central tendency.
    4.1Discuss the purpose of measures of central tendency.
    4.2Define mean, median, and mode.
    4.3Identify the distinguishing characteristics of the mean, median, and mode.
    4.4Discuss the limitations of the mean, median, and mode.

    multiple choice questions for Objective 4

    essay/activity questions for Objective 4

    web links for Objective 4

  5. Define or describe three measures of variability.
    5.1Discuss the purpose of measures of variation.
    5.2Define range, quartile deviation, variance, and standard deviation.
    5.3Discuss the limitations of the range, quartile deviation, variance, and standard deviation.

    multiple choice questions for Objective 5

    essay/activity questions for Objective 5

    web links for Objective 5

  6. List four characteristics of normal distributions.
    6.1Explain the concept of symmetry as related to the normal curve.
    6.2Describe the relationship between the mean, median, and mode in a normal curve.
    6.3Identify the nature of the vertical and horizontal axes in a normal curve and explain how this affects the interpretation of scores.
    6.4Discuss the characteristics of the normal curve related to specific standard deviation units above and/or below the mean.

    multiple choice questions for Objective 6

    web links for Objective 6

  7. List two characteristics of positively skewed distributions and negatively skewed distributions.
    7.1Describe the scores in a positively skewed and negatively skewed distribution.
    7.2Explain the relationship between the mean, median, and mode in positively skewed and negatively skewed distributions.

    multiple choice questions for Objective 7

  8. Define or describe two measures of relationship.
    8.1Discuss the purpose of measures of relationship.
    8.2Discuss the interpretation of correlation coefficients in terms of strength and direction.
    8.3Identify the unique characteristics of Spearman rho and Pearson r.

    multiple choice questions for Objective 8

    essay/activity questions for Objective 8

  9. Define or describe four measures of relative position.
    9.1Describe the purpose of measures of relative position.
    9.2Identify the advantage associated with measures of relative position.
    9.3Define percentile ranks and discuss their characteristics.
    9.4Define the term standard score and identify three types of standard scores.
    9.5Describe the characteristics of z scores.
    9.6Describe the characteristics of T scores.
    9.7Describe the characteristics of stanines.
    9.8Discuss four uses of z scores relative to the percentage of scores in a normal curve.

    multiple choice questions for Objective 9

    essay/activity questions for Objective 9

  10. Generate (in other words, make up) a column of 10 single numbers, each between 1 and 10. You may use any number more than once. Assume those numbers represent scores on a posttest. Using these “scores,” give the formula and compute the following (show your work): mean, standard deviation, z scores, and Pearson r (divide the column in half and make two columns of five scores each).
    10.1Write the formula for the mean, calculate a mean by hand using an existing data set, and check your work using SPSS.
    10.2Write the formula for the standard deviation, calculate a standard deviation by hand using an existing data set, and check your work using SPSS.
    10.3Write the formula for z scores, calculate several z scores by hand using an existing data set, and check your work using SPSS.
    10.4Write the formula for the Pearson r, calculate a Pearson r by hand using an existing data set, and check your work using SPSS.

    essay/activity questions for Objective 10

    web links for Objective 10






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