Home Chapter 11 Chapter Objectives

# Chapter Objectives

The ten (10) chapter objectives listed in this module are the same as those found in the opening page of Chapter 11 of the textbook. However, several learning objectives have been written and listed below to help you focus on specific material that is critical to your being able to demonstrate proficiency on the broader chapter objectives. In addition, multiple choice and essay/activity self-assessment items have been written for most of the learning objectives to help assess your knowledge of this material. You can access these items through the Multiple Choice and Essay/Activity modules.

1. List the steps involved in scoring standardized and self-developed tests.
 1.1 Describe the characteristics of standardized and self-developed test scores. 1.2 Identify the advantages of scoring selected response items. 1.3 Explain the importance of delineating scoring steps and guidelines for open-ended items. 1.4 Explain the importance of checking for reliability when scoring tests. 1.5 Identify the advantages and disadvantages of machine scoring tests.

2. Describe the process of coding data, and give three examples of variables that would require coding.
 2.1 Describe the ways by which data can be tabulated. 2.2 Create coded names for variables. 2.3 Create codes identifying participants and the levels of categorical or nominal variables. 2.4 Identify one advantage of initially calculating some descriptive statistics by hand.

3. List the steps involved in constructing a frequency polygon.
 3.1 Identify the nature of the vertical and horizontal axes of a frequency polygon. 3.2 Interpret data presented in a frequency polygon.

4. Define or describe three measures of central tendency.
 4.1 Discuss the purpose of measures of central tendency. 4.2 Define mean, median, and mode. 4.3 Identify the distinguishing characteristics of the mean, median, and mode. 4.4 Discuss the limitations of the mean, median, and mode.

5. Define or describe three measures of variability.
 5.1 Discuss the purpose of measures of variation. 5.2 Define range, quartile deviation, variance, and standard deviation. 5.3 Discuss the limitations of the range, quartile deviation, variance, and standard deviation.

6. List four characteristics of normal distributions.
 6.1 Explain the concept of symmetry as related to the normal curve. 6.2 Describe the relationship between the mean, median, and mode in a normal curve. 6.3 Identify the nature of the vertical and horizontal axes in a normal curve and explain how this affects the interpretation of scores. 6.4 Discuss the characteristics of the normal curve related to specific standard deviation units above and/or below the mean.

7. List two characteristics of positively skewed distributions and negatively skewed distributions.
 7.1 Describe the scores in a positively skewed and negatively skewed distribution. 7.2 Explain the relationship between the mean, median, and mode in positively skewed and negatively skewed distributions.

8. Define or describe two measures of relationship.
 8.1 Discuss the purpose of measures of relationship. 8.2 Discuss the interpretation of correlation coefficients in terms of strength and direction. 8.3 Identify the unique characteristics of Spearman rho and Pearson r.

9. Define or describe four measures of relative position.
 9.1 Describe the purpose of measures of relative position. 9.2 Identify the advantage associated with measures of relative position. 9.3 Define percentile ranks and discuss their characteristics. 9.4 Define the term standard score and identify three types of standard scores. 9.5 Describe the characteristics of z scores. 9.6 Describe the characteristics of T scores. 9.7 Describe the characteristics of stanines. 9.8 Discuss four uses of z scores relative to the percentage of scores in a normal curve.

10. Generate (in other words, make up) a column of 10 single numbers, each between 1 and 10. You may use any number more than once. Assume those numbers represent scores on a posttest. Using these “scores,” give the formula and compute the following (show your work): mean, standard deviation, z scores, and Pearson r (divide the column in half and make two columns of five scores each).
 10.1 Write the formula for the mean, calculate a mean by hand using an existing data set, and check your work using SPSS. 10.2 Write the formula for the standard deviation, calculate a standard deviation by hand using an existing data set, and check your work using SPSS. 10.3 Write the formula for z scores, calculate several z scores by hand using an existing data set, and check your work using SPSS. 10.4 Write the formula for the Pearson r, calculate a Pearson r by hand using an existing data set, and check your work using SPSS.