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Glossary


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#  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z



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.jpgAn image file format, commonly pronounced JPEG, that stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group; this is a common file type used by digital cameras and computers to store digital pictures; JPEG is popular because it can store a high-quality picture in a relatively small file.

.pngAn image file format, commonly pronounced PING, that stands for Portable Network Graphic; this is an image file type that can be transferred over the Internet.

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A

Action CenterLocated in the notification area, a central place to view alerts and take actions related to things that need your attention.

Address barDisplays your current location in the folder structure as a series of links separated by arrows.

Administrator accountA user account that lets you make changes that will affect other users of the computer; the most powerful of the three types of accounts, because it permits the most control over the computer.

AppThe shortened version of the word application.

App barAn area at the bottom of every Windows Store app containing various controls pertaining to the app.

App switcherThe thumbnail view of open apps that displays when you move your mouse down from the Back tip in the upper left corner; to switch to an app that is still open, you can click any of the thumbnails.

ApplicationA set of instructions that a computer uses to accomplish a task; also called a program.

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B

Back tipThe upper left corner of the Start screen that when pointed to displays a thumbnail image of the last screen you were on; you can use it to go back to your previous screen.

BadgeAn icon that displays on the Lock screen, below the time, day, and date, that represents the status of your Internet connection, your battery if you are using a tablet or laptop, or any other Lock screen apps you might have selected.

Booting the computerThe process of turning on a computer when the computer has been completely shut down.

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C

CharmsA set of buttons that display when you point or swipe in from the right side of the screen that you can use in every app—whether a Windows Store app or a desktop app—and that enable you to search, share, access devices, or adjust your PC settings.

ClickThe action of pressing the left mouse button.

ClipboardA temporary storage area for information that you have copied or moved from one place and plan to use somewhere else.

Cloud storageStorage space on an Internet site that can also display as a drive on your computer.

Compressed fileA file that has been reduced in size and that takes up less storage space and can be transferred to other computers faster than uncompressed files.

Contextual tabContext-sensitive commands and options on the ribbon that are relevant to the active object.

ClickThe action of pressing the left mouse button.

ClipboardA temporary storage area for information that you have copied or moved from one place and plan to use somewhere else.

Cloud storageStorage space on an Internet site that can also display as a drive on your computer.

Compressed fileA file that has been reduced in size and that takes up less storage space and can be transferred to other computers faster than uncompressed files.

Contextual tabContext-sensitive commands and options on the ribbon that are relevant to the active object.

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D

DashboardA descriptive term for the Windows 8 Start screen because it provides a one-screen view of links to information and programs that matter most to the signed-in user.

DataAll the files—documents, workbooks, pictures, songs, and so on—that you create and store during the day-to-day use of your computer.

Data managementThe process of managing your files and folders in an organized manner so that you can find information when you need it.

DesktopThe area in Windows 8 where you use desktop apps and that serves as a surface for your work, like the top of an actual desk.

Desktop appA computer program installed on the hard drive of a computer and that requires a computer operating system like Microsoft Windows or Apple OS to run.

Desktop backgroundDisplays the colors and graphics of your desktop; you can change the desktop background to look the way you want it.

Desktop shortcutsDesktop icons that link to any item accessible on your computer or on a network, such as a program, file, folder, disk drive, printer, or another computer.

Details paneDisplays the most common properties associated with the selected file.

Details viewThe file list view in File Explorer that displays a list of files or folders and their most common properties.

Dialog boxA small window that displays options for completing a task.

Double-clickThe action of pressing the left mouse button twice in rapid succession while holding the mouse still.

DragThe action of moving something from one location on the screen to another while holding down the left mouse button; the action of dragging includes releasing the mouse button at the desired time or location.

DriveAn area of storage that is formatted with a file system compatible with your operating system and is identified by a drive letter.

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E

ExtractThe action of decompressing—pulling out—files from a compressed form.

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F

FileA collection of information that is stored on a computer under a single name, for example a text document, a picture, or a program.

File ExplorerThe program within Windows 8 that displays the contents of libraries, folders, and files on your computer, and which also enables you to perform tasks related to your files and folders such as copying, moving, and renaming. File Explorer is at work anytime you are viewing the contents of a library, a folder, or a file.

File listDisplays the contents of the current folder or library; if you type text into the Search box, only the folders and files that match your search will display here—including files in subfolders.

File propertiesInformation about a file such as its author, the date the file was last changed, and any descriptive tags.

FolderA container in which you store files.

Folder structureThe hierarchy of folders in Windows 8.

Folder windowDisplays the contents of the current folder, library, or device, and contains helpful parts so that you can navigate—explore within the organizing structure of Windows.

Free-form snipWhen using Snipping Tool, the type of snip that lets you draw an irregular line, such as a circle, around an area of the screen.

Full-screen snipWhen using Snipping Tool, the type of snip that captures the entire screen.

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G

Graphical user interfaceThe system by which you interact with your computer and which uses graphics such as an image of a file folder or wastebasket that you click to activate the item represented.

GUIThe acronym for a graphical user interface, pronounced GOO-ee.

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H

Hard disk driveThe primary storage device located inside your computer and where most of your files and programs are typically stored; usually labeled as drive C.

HierarchyAn arrangement where items are ranked and where each level is lower in rank than the item above it.

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I

IconsSmall images that represent commands, files, applications, or other windows.

ImmersiveThe term that describes the Windows 8 style screens, meaning they have no borders, no menus, and they behave differently from traditional Windows desktop programs because there is no taskbar, an app cannot be minimized like a desktop program, nor can an app be dragged around as a smaller window; the idea is that you are immersed in the app with no screen distractions.

Insertion pointA blinking vertical line that indicates where text or graphics will be inserted.

Internet ExplorerThe web browser program developed by Microsoft that is included with Windows 8.

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J

JPEGAn acronym for Joint Photographic Experts Group, and which is a common file type used by digital cameras and computers to store digital pictures; JPEG is popular because it can store a high-quality picture in a relatively small file. A JPEG file has a .jpg file extension.

Jump ListA list that displays when you right-click a button on the taskbar, and which displays locations (in the upper portion) and tasks (in the lower portion) from a program’s taskbar button.

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K

Keyboard shortcutA combination of two or more keyboard keys, used to perform a task that would otherwise require a mouse.

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L

LibraryA collection of items, such as files and folders, assembled from various locations.

Live tilesTiles on the Windows 8 Start screen that are constantly updated with fresh information relevant to the signed-in user; for example, the number of new email messages, new sports scores of interest, or new updates to social networks such as Facebook or Twitter.

Local accountA user account in which the information associated with each user is local to a single Windows 8 computer.

LocationAny disk drive, folder, or other place in which you can store files and folders.

Lock screenThe first screen that displays after turning on a Windows 8 device, which displays the time, day, and date, and one or more icons representing the status of the device’s Internet connection, battery status on a tablet or laptop, and any Lock screen apps that are installed such as email notifications.

Lock screen appsApps that display on a Windows 8 Lock screen and that show quick status and notifications, even if the screen is locked, and include Calendar, Mail, Messaging, and Weather.

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M

MenuA list of commands within a category.

Menu barA group of menus.

Microsoft accountA user account that allows you to set up one Windows 8 computer and then synchronize all the same settings from that computer to any other device you have that uses Windows 8.

Microsoft Design LanguageThe design principles in Windows 8 that include tiles with white text on deeply colored backgrounds, consistent fonts, simpler navigation, and the use of the entire screen; the idea is that you are immersed in the app with no screen distractions.

Mouse pointerAny symbol that displays on your screen in response to moving your mouse.

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N

Navigate (File Explorer)Explore within the file organizing structure of Windows 8.

Navigation paneThe area on the left side of a folder window; it displays favorites, libraries, and an expandable list of drives and folders.

Notification areaDisplays notification icons and the system clock; sometimes referred to as the system tray.

Notification barIn Internet Explorer 10, a bar at the bottom of your screen that displays information about pending downloads, security issues, add-ons, and other issues related to the operation of your computer.

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O

Operating systemA specific type of computer program that manages the other programs on a computer—including computer devices such as desktop computers, laptop computers, smartphones, tablet computers, and game consoles.

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P

PaintA program that comes with Windows 8 with which you can create and edit drawings and display and edit stored photos.

Parent folderIn the file organizing structure of File Explorer, the location where the folder you are viewing is saved—one level up in the hierarchy.

PathA sequence of folders (directories) that leads to a specific file or folder.

PC settingsThe area from which you can control almost everything about how Windows 8 looks and works; you can change colors and backgrounds, the picture on your Lock screen, or your account picture, manage other users (if you are the administrator), connect devices like printers, or set up a network.

Personal folderA folder created for each user account on a Windows 8 computer, labeled with the account holder’s name, and which contains the subfolders Documents, Pictures, Music, and Videos.

PINGAn acronym for Portable Network Graphic, and which is a common file type that can be transferred over the Internet. A PING file has a .png file extension.

Point toThe action of moving the mouse pointer over a specific area.

PointerAny symbol that displays on your screen in response to moving your mouse and with which you can select objects and commands.

Pointing deviceA mouse, touchpad, or other device that controls the pointer position on the screen.

ProgramA set of instructions that a computer uses to accomplish a task; also called an application.

Progress barIn a dialog box or taskbar button, a bar that indicates visually the progress of a task such as a download or file transfer.

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R

Rectangular snipWhen using Snipping Tool, the type of snip that lets you draw a precise box by dragging the mouse pointer around an area of the screen to form a rectangle.

Recycle BinA folder that stores anything that you delete from your computer, and from which anything stored can be retrieved until the contents are permanently deleted by activating the Empty Recycle Bin command.

Removable storage deviceA portable device on which you can store files, such as a USB flash drive, a flash memory card, or an external hard drive, commonly used to transfer information from one computer to another.

ResourcesA term used to refer collectively to the parts of your computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, and any attached devices such as a printer.

RibbonThe area at the top of a folder window in File Explorer that groups common tasks such as copying and moving, creating new folders, emailing and zipping items, and changing views on related tabs.

Right-clickThe action of clicking the right mouse button.

RoamThe ability to set up one computer, for example a desktop computer, and then synchronize—roam—all the same settings to a laptop, to a tablet PC, to a Windows phone, or to any other device to which one signs in with the same Microsoft account.

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S

Screen captureAn image file that contains the contents of a computer screen.

ScreenshotAnother name for a screen capture.

ScreenTipUseful information that displays in a small box on the screen when you perform various mouse actions, such as pointing to screen elements.

Scroll arrowAn arrow at the top and bottom, or left and right, of a scroll bar that when clicked, moves the window in small increments.

Scroll barA bar that displays on the bottom or right side of a window when the contents of a window are not completely visible; used to move the window up, down, left, or right to bring the contents into view.

Scroll boxThe box in a vertical or horizontal scroll bar that you drag to reposition the document on the screen.

SelectTo specify, by highlighting, a block of data or text on the screen with the intent of performing some action on the selection.

SharePointA Microsoft technology that enables employees in an organization to access information across organizational and geographic boundaries.

Shortcut menuA context-sensitive menu that displays commands and options relevant to the active object.

Shut downTurning off your computer in a manner that closes all open programs and files, closes your network connections, stops the hard disk, and discontinues the use of electrical power.

SkyDriveA free file storage and file sharing service provided by Microsoft when you sign up for a Microsoft account.

SleepTurning off your computer in a manner that automatically saves your work, stops the fan, and uses a small amount of electrical power to maintain your work in memory.

Snap (desktop apps)A Windows 8 desktop feature that automatically resizes windows when you move—snap—them to the edge of the screen.

SnipThe image captured using Snipping Tool.

Snipping ToolA program included with Windows 8 with which you can capture an image of all or part of a computer screen, and then annotate, save, copy, or share the image via email.

Speakers iconDisplays the status of the computer’s speakers (if any).

Split buttonA button that has two parts—a button and an arrow; clicking the main part of the button performs a command and clicking the arrow opens a menu with choices.

Start screenThe first screen that displays after signing in to a Windows 8 device, which displays square and rectangular boxes—referred to as tiles—from which one can access apps, websites, programs, and tools for using the computer by clicking or tapping them.

Start searchThe search feature in Windows 8 in which, from the Start screen, you can begin to type and by default, Windows 8 searches for apps; you can adjust the search to search for files or settings.

Start tipThe thumbnail that displays when you point to the lower left corner of your screen.

SwitcherAnother name for app switcher.

System trayAnother name for the notification area on the taskbar.

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T

TagsProperties that you create and add to a file to help you find and organize your files.

TaskbarThe area of the desktop that contains program buttons, and buttons for all open programs; by default, it is located at the bottom of the desktop, but you can move it.

ThumbnailA reduced image of a graphic.

TilesSquare and rectangular boxes on the Windows 8 Start screen from which one can access apps, websites, programs, and tools for using the computer by simply clicking or tapping them.

Title barThe bar across the top of the window that displays the program name.

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U

User accountA collection of information that tells Windows 8 what files and folders the account holder can access, what changes the account holder can make to the computer system, and what the account holder’s personal preferences are.

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W

WallpaperAnother term for the desktop background.

Web browserSoftware with which you display webpages and navigate the Internet.

Window snipWhen using Snipping Tool, the type of snip that captures the entire displayed window.

Windows 8An operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation designed to work with mobile computing devices of all types and also with traditional PCs.

Windows Store appsApps built for specific purposes; for example, to view photos, read sports information, organize a list of contacts, or read updates to social networks like Facebook and Twitter.

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